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"Copyright by Elisa English" ** The views expressed are mine only and do not represent the views of my employer or anyone else. ** 嚴重聲明: Elisa English 文章版權所有 - 請勿竊取. **沒有得到我 (Elisa English) 的許可不可轉貼我的文章及翻譯。請刪除在您的部落格裡我的所有文章及翻譯, 否則我將採取法律行動。 Legal actions will be taken if copyright infringement is found. ** 為阻止有人來鬧場, 我不得不限制誰可以在我部落格留言。 想要留言給我,你首先需要一個pixnet帳戶,如有不當留言,將被列入黑名單. 文章迴響只限好友. 悄悄話留言只能悄悄話答覆, 不過可能會整理後發表非隱私部分, 以供大家學習. 文章將不時校對和更新。如您發現任何用字錯誤或錯別字,請告知. 勿登廣告或求代寫功課. 歡迎中文留言. 但我的答覆一律以英文為主. 盡可能在一至10天內回應, 但可能更久, 因我也有自己的工作,家庭和生活.

Participles:

A participle is a verbal that acts as an adjective, modifying nouns or pronouns. 

 

There are two types of participles: The Present Participle and The Past Participle. 

 

The Present Participle indicates as an active voice, or an activity in progress, and ends in –ing.  The Past Participle indicates a passive voice, or a perfect condition and ends in –ed.      

 

The difference between a present participle and a gerund is that a gerund is a verbal that functions as a noun. 

 

Examples of the use of Gerund

(1) Living in Paris is fun. 

(2) Reading is hard.

(3) I do not like your shouting right at my face.

 (4) He is obsessed with drinking.

 

Examples for the use of Participles:

(1) Used as an adjective –

A drowning person

A crying baby

A drunk driver

A broken vase

 

(2) Used to state an activity in progress –

He is waiting for John to show up.

 

(3) Used to state a perfect condition –

He has forgotten to show up at John’s party.

He had forgotten to show up at John’s party.

 

(4) Used as a passive voice –

He was bullied by his classmates.

He is bullied by his classmates.

 

(5) Used to make one sentence out of two -

He saw us running down the street. = He saw us.  We ran down the street

He came to the meeting fully rejuvenated. = He came to the meeting.  He was fully rejuvenated.

 

(6) Used after sense verbs –

The event sounds exciting.

He saw us running down the street.

 

(7) Used after verbs of “rest” and “movement”

He came sneaking up on me.

 

(8) Used to shorten relative clause –

Children introduced to music early have a tendency to excel in academics

= Children who are introduced to music early have a tendency to excel in academics.

 

She is the girl living in Paris

= She is the girl who lives in Paris .

 

I am mad at all the people showing up at the party. 

= I am mad at all the people who show up at the party.

 

(9) Used instead of a subordinate clause –

Not feeling well, I went home early

= As I did not feel well, I went home early.

 

Walking down the street, he saw a house on fire

= When he walked the street, and he saw a house on fire.

 

Having finished his homework, he went downstairs to have a workout.

= As he had finished his homework, he went downstairs to have a workout.

 

Having been sick for several days, I decide to see a doctor

= Since I have been sick for several days, I decided to see a doctor.

= Sick for several days, I decided to see a doctor

 

Bullied by his classmates, he became very antisocial. 

= Because he was bullied by his classmates, he became very antisocial.

 

Although having been trained to be a top scientist, I still failed to become one

= Although I had been trained to be a top scientist, I still failed to become one.

 

Although (being) trained to be a top scientist, I still failed to become one

= Although I was trained to be a top scientist, I still failed to become one.

 

John’s father diagnosed with cancer and administered to the hospital, he took a family leave of absence. 

= John’s father was diagnosed with cancer and was administered to the hospital, so he took a family leave of absence.

 

While walking down the street, he saw a house on fire.

= While he was walking down the street, he saw a house on fire.

** 版權所有 - Elisa

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  • rup4ru8
  • I have answered your questions posted on the message board
    我知道,謝謝你的回覆~
    我也正再準備另一些問題給你...啊!不是,是要請教你QQ"
  • Hi,
    I am back.  I will take a look at your questions this weekend.

    elisaenglish 於 2009/02/13 14:04 回覆

  • rup4ru8
  • 我看錯了...抱歉
    No longer able to eat any more, I passed on the dessert紅色部分非分詞構句,我以為是.
    而下面
    No being able to eat any more, I passed on the dessert那這樣是不是就錯了?
    Take your time,玩的開心點~
  • Look at how it evolves from the original sentence.
    Not being able to eat any more, I passed on the dessert => comes from the sentence:
    I was "not" able to eat any more.  I passed on the dessert.
    => "Not" being able to eat any more, I passed on the dessert.
    No longer able to eat any more, I passed on the dessert. => comes from the sentence:
    I was "no" longer able to eat any more.  I passed on the dessert.
    => (Being) "No" longer able to eat any more, I passed on the dessert.
    ** I have answered your questions posted on the message board.

    elisaenglish 於 2009/01/30 22:51 回覆

  • Elisa
  • Hi, rup4ru8
    Is this what you are looking for?
    I am not able to eat any more.  I passed on the dessert.
     => I, not (being) able to eat any more, passed on the dessert.
    => Not (being) able to eat any more, I passed on the dessert.
     
    I am no longer able to eat any more.  I passed on the dessert.
    => I, (being) no longer able to eat any more, passed on the dessert.
    => (Being) No longer able to eat any more, I passed on the dessert.
  • rup4ru8
  • 恩,我了解,書上也有寫先發生的事件放分詞構句.
    這邊我突然想起一個問題,
    否定詞放在現在分詞之前置於句首時,不能用no來否定現在分詞,只能用not。這種說法正確嗎?書沒寫,我是看到一個英文網站寫的.
    I could no longer eat any more.  I passed on the dessert.
    => No longer able to eat any more, I passed on the dessert.

     
     
  • I don't quite understand what you mean. Can you elaborate? 
    ** Not being able to eat any more, I passed on the dessert. (correct)
    ** No longer able to eat any more, I passed on the dessert. (correct)
     
    About the question you left on my message board, I will take a look at it later.  It is almost 2am now and I do have to go to sleep.  By the way, if I don't get back to you by this Friday, it will be a week or more after that when I am back from my vacation. 

    elisaenglish 於 2009/01/28 15:50 回覆

  • rup4ru8
  • 我喜歡分詞構句的文法模式,但在我看完課本及你的說明,我仍有一點疑惑未解開,那就是有助動詞的句子該如何?規則告訴我們,凡非被動式的句子通通改成現代分詞,完成式改HAVING,但就是沒有跟我們講到有助動詞的情形,如can will must may等
    例如:The applicants passed the exam.
             They will be hired by the firm.
     
        
  • First there is a concept you need to understand while using participle.  The sentence with the event that happened first is the one that can be changed to a participle phrase.  For example:
    (1) After the applicants passed the exams, they will be hired by the firm.
    =>  After passing the exams, the applicants will be hired by the firm.
    ** Passed the exams -> happened first.
    (2) I have eaten too much.  I can no longer eat any more.
    => Having eaten too much, I can no longer eat any more.
    ** have eaten too much -> happened first.
    (3) I could no longer eat any more.  I passed on the dessert.
    => No longer able to eat any more, I passed on the dessert.
     ** could no longer eat any more -> happened first. 
    However, for this, you will have to change it to an infinitive phrase.
    N.B.: By the way, don't use it too excessively.  There are other sentence structures. 
    For example, with this sentence, it makes no sense to use it.
    John will have finished the essay long before the bell rings.

    elisaenglish 於 2009/01/26 16:19 回覆