Which vs. Where:

1. I like to go to a park which is very quiet 這裡的which是不是可以換成where?

 

=> No.  用法有些不同

 

(A)  I like to go to a park which is very quiet.

= I like to go to a park that is very quiet.

我喜歡去一個非常安靜的公園

=> which, that (關代)

關代所代替的名詞為「先行詞」,關代所引導的子句為「形容詞子句
a park -  名詞 (先行詞)

Which, that  - 關代

Which is very quiet, that is very quiet -形容詞子句

 

** The park is very quiet.

It is a very quiet park.

這是一個非常安靜的公園

 

形容詞子句當修飾人或物, who, whom, which, that 等關係代名詞連接。

See 何為形容詞子句? http://elisaenglish.pixnet.net/blog/post/639459

 

(B) 換成where, 需要改

I like to go to a park where it is very quiet.

= I like to go to a park in which it is very quiet. 

我喜歡去一個裡面非常安靜的公園

 

** It is very quiet in the park.

公園非常安靜

 

Which vs. That

 Have you ever heard a story which touched your heart? 這裡的which等於that嗎?
什麼時候不使用which?  什麼時候不使用that ?
 

Have you ever heard a story which touched your heart?

= Have you ever heard a story that touched your heart?

 

 

什麼時候使用that 較使用which更為恰當? 

下情況使用that 使用which更為恰當, 使用which也沒有

(a) 在代名詞之後: all, any, anything, every, everything, few, little, many, much, no, nothing, none, some, something

 He is all that she ever wants. 

 (b) 在回答 “what”動詞之後: 例如: say, suggest, state, declare, hope, think, write, 等情況下:

(What does he suggest?)

He suggests that we wait for a few more days.

(c) 在由最高級形容詞修飾的名詞之後:

She is the tallest girl that I have ever seen.

 

(d) 在序數之後例如: first, second, third, fourth,…

He is the third person that does not criticize me.

 

(e) 如果在主句的動詞是BE動詞時:

It is a crime that nobody can solve.

 

什麼時候不能使用 that?

=> 非限定用法不能使用 that.

 

如果一個形容詞子句從句子除,主句的意思改變, 為限定子句。

通常與主句之間沒有加逗點分離.  多數形容詞句是限定用法

非限定用法的形容詞子句與主句之間加逗點分離關係代名詞 “that” 不可用於非限定用法, 關係代名詞於非限定用法不可省略

 

關代的限定用法 vs. 非限定用法?
(I)
限定用法 

 形容詞子句從句子移除,主句的意思改變

限定用法, 所指的不只一個

(a) Employers who care for their employees have higher employee satisfaction.   (限定用法)

關心員工的雇主其員工滿意度較高

= Employers that care for their employees have higher employee satisfaction.   (限定用法)

** Employers have higher employee satisfaction.   (形容詞子句從句子移除,主句的意思改變 -限定用法)

雇主有較高的員工滿意度。 意思改變

(b) My brother-in-law (who was) awarded with a Nobel Prize is 19 years old.  (I have many brother-in-laws.  I am talking about the brother-in-law who was awarded with a Nobel Prize)

那個榮獲諾貝爾獎的姐夫是19 (我有不只一個姐夫)

 

(II) 限定用法:

限定用法表示所提供的資料是附加的,形容詞子句從句子移除,主句的意思改變 

非限定用法, 所指的只此一個, 所提供的資料是附加補充的

(a)  Reading books, which I often do, help to increase my knowledge. 限定用法

看書,我經常這樣做,有利於增長知識。

Reading books help to increase my knowledge.  (基本含義並沒有改變)

看書有助於提高我的知識

 

(b) My brother-in-law, who was awarded with a Nobel Prize, is 19 years old.  (I have only one brother-in-law and he is 19 years old.  By the way, he got a Nobel Prize. )

 我的姐夫獲得了諾貝爾獎, 19 (我只有一個姐夫)

 

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