Present Perfect (現在完成式) 


1.  Actions began in the past, time unspecified, still happening in the present and may continue into the future, indicating changes that have happened over a period of time (specifying duration from the past until now).  Actions may have been repeated numerous times and are likely to be repeated in the future. 


2.  Actions began in the past, time unspecified, and completed in the recent past or have an effect in the present.  Whilst, simple past (time specified) is used to describe actions finished in a more distant past.


3.  Uncompleted actions expected to happen. 


4.  Life experience



For example:


1.  I have lived in Salt Lake City since sophomore.

1.  I haven’t seen you for ages.

1.  Linda has been ill for over two weeks.

1.  Unemployment rate has increased significantly over the past two years.  (may continue to increase)

1.  John has visited Paris several times already.

1.  How much you have changed since I last saw you!

1.  Men have ventured into so many unknown territories.


2.  I have slept like a baby up until now. 

     I slept like a baby last night.

2.  Mary has escaped from prison.  <She is still at large>

     Mary escaped from prison.  <She may be captured now>


3.  The plane has not arrived yet.

 3.  John has not completed the race yet. 


4.   I have never learned how to speak Italian.

4.   I have never been to Berlin.



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