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"Copyright by Elisa English" ** The views expressed are mine only and do not represent the views of my employer or anyone else. ** 嚴重聲明: Elisa English 文章版權所有 - 請勿竊取. **沒有得到我 (Elisa English) 的許可不可轉貼我的文章及翻譯。請刪除在您的部落格裡我的所有文章及翻譯, 否則我將採取法律行動。 Legal actions will be taken if copyright infringement is found. ** 為阻止有人來鬧場, 我不得不限制誰可以在我部落格留言。 想要留言給我,你首先需要一個pixnet帳戶,如有不當留言,將被列入黑名單. 文章迴響只限好友. 悄悄話留言只能悄悄話答覆, 不過可能會整理後發表非隱私部分, 以供大家學習. 文章將不時校對和更新。如您發現任何用字錯誤或錯別字,請告知. 勿登廣告或求代寫功課. 歡迎中文留言. 但我的答覆一律以英文為主. 盡可能在一至10天內回應, 但可能更久, 因我也有自己的工作,家庭和生活.

When to use a comma?

 

A. Use commas to avoid confusion. 

 

(1a) I intend to share my vacation home with my parents, Mary and Joe.

=> This means:  I intend to share my vacation home with my parents.  My parents’ names are Mary and Joe.  I will be sharing my vacation home with both of them.

 

(1b) I intend to share my vacation home with my parents, Mary, and Joe.

=> This means: I intend to share my vacation home with my parents, with Mary and with Joe.  So I will be sharing my vacation home with four people. 

 

(2a) I cannot stand a hypocrite like you.  I hate politics.

=> This means:  You are a hypocrite.  I cannot stand you.

 

(2b) I cannot stand a hypocrite; like you, I hate politics.

=>  This means:  I am like you.  I cannot stand a hypocrite

 

(3)  I like eating meat and vegetable, and fruit is her favorite.

=>  This means:  I like eating meat and vegetable.  She likes eating fruit the most.  I did not mention if I like eating fruit or not.

 

(4)  To Cindy, Brook is nothing but a trouble.

=>  This means:  Brook is a trouble in the eyes of Cindy.

 

(5) Outside, the garden was cluttered with faded flowers.
=> Without the comma, it will mean “outside the garden” instead of “outside”, and the grammar will be inaccurate.

不用逗號,它將讓人認為那是「在花園之外」而不是「在外面」, 并且語法也是不對的。

 

(不用逗號正確語法: Outside the garden were clusters of faded flowers.)

 

See the difference!

 

** Without comma, they will be treated as a unit.

 

For Example:

 

(6a) For dinner, I want meatloaf, banana, macaroni, and cheese. 

=> This means:  I want four items prepared separately.  I want cheese in addition to macaroni.

 

(6b) For dinner, I want meatloaf, banana, macaroni and cheese.

=> This means: macaroni and cheese is one item. 

 

  

B.  Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.

Ø  I like taking my vacation in the winter, and she likes taking hers in the summer.

 

Ø  I like going shopping, but I cannot stand the crowd.

 

Ø  I have finished my lunch, yet I still feel hungry.

 

Ø  I don’t agree with the result of his experiment, so I decide to do it myself.

 

Ø  I decided to run for city mayor, for I believe that I have much to offer to the city.

 

Ø  Mary cannot decide whether she should stay here with her family, or fly to London to join her boyfriend.

 

Ø  Hardly can I determine which proposal to follow, nor am I capable of coming up with a more innovative one. 

 

Ø  I like eating meat and vegetable, while she likes to eat fruit. (while = but)

 

C.  Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses written in a series.

Ø  Kevin and I started our 2 week vacation to Mount Rushmore, Rocky Mountains, and Grand Canyon

 

Ø  As an exchange for a trip to Legoland, our kids agreed to listen to our command, (to) show their best behaviors, and (to) do their own chores.

 

Ø  Mary, who had a strong motive, who was prosecuted for murder, and who had been on suicide watch, was recently found not guilty.

 

Ø  I will help you if you stop smoking, if you exercise every day, and if you promise not to drink anymore.

 

Ø  Joanne has a most kind, sensitive, and untamed heart.

 

Ø  Timmy kicked Jack in the butt, punched him in the face, and threw him on the ground.

 

Ø  He ran, jumped, and shouted at the playground.   

 

** Commas can be omitted if the independent clauses are very short and closely connected.

 

Note: Some writers have argued that the conjunction (and, but, or) does the same thing as a comma.  However, to avoid confusion, it is best to use the comma between the last two items.

 

For example:

I approved the proposal and he did too.

I like dancing and he likes skating.

 

Note: Comma Splice Error & Run on Sentence Error

If two independent clauses are connected without a conjunction but a comma, this type of error is called “comma splice”.  If two independent clauses are connection without proper punctuations or conjunctions, this type of error is called “run-on sentence”.

 

For example:

Comma Splice Error:

I decided to run for city mayor, I believe that I have much to offer to the city.  (X)

 

Run-on Sentence Error:

I decided to run for city mayor I believe that I have much to offer to the city.  (X)

 

=> Correction: add comma and conjunction

I decided to run for city mayor, for I believe that I have much to offer to the city. (O)

 

=> Correction:  Separate it into two simple sentences.

I decided to run for city mayor.  I believe that I have much to offer to the city. (O)

 

=> Correction: add semicolon to separate the sentence.

I decided to run for city mayor; I believe that I have much to offer to the city. (O)

 

 

D.   Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives (coordinate adjectives) when the word and can be inserted between them, and when the order of the adjectives can be reversed. 

 

For example:

 

Ø  Joanne has a most kind, sensitive, (and) untamed heart. (coordinate)

 

Ø  I cannot find the white sporty car.  (non-coordinate)

 

Ø  She wore a bright red, fancy skirt. (bright & red: non-coordinate, red & fancy: coordinate)

 

 

>> Click Next (Usage of Comma - 2 of 3) 

 

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  • 黑輪
  •  
    非常謝謝您的幫忙.
    您的更正使文章流暢許多.
    祝您一切 順心 平安
    Have a nice day with best regards
    Hellen
     
     
     
  • louise
  • 妳好^^. 第一次看到妳的網站.好精采喔.請問您有在英文家教嗎? 還是翻譯之類的呢?如果可以請妳當家教 一定很可以學的很快^^謝謝你喔
  • No.  I do not have the capacity to be an English tutor.  Once a month, I do volunteer work in providing ESL tutoring. 
    As for translation, I work as a freelance and only do it as I please, on a case-by-case basis.  I do not have much spare time to do it. 
    Thanks for your compliments.

    elisaenglish 於 2009/05/15 14:55 回覆

  • 黑輪
  • 您好,
    不知可否幫忙更正如下的英文文法及替換較適合的英文句子.
    謝謝您. 您的幫忙感激不盡.
     
    藝術源於人類文化,人文與藝術都是文化中的精粹,其多元的表現能具體反映作者思想情感,顯示時代社會生活。由於文學與藝術日益純化,漸漸讓一般大眾難以接近,因此,本課群在教學上使學生具備欣賞或評價藝術的能力,培養獨立自主的辨識力,能體察生活的美,進而陶冶美的人格,豐富人生。
    Art originates from human’s culture. The humanities and art are the essence of culture, which the multiple expressions can concretely reflect author’s thoughts and emotion, reflecting the society’s life. Due to the literature and art are purified day by day, making people hard to get close to gradually. Therefore, this class is to let students possess the  ability of appreciation or evaluation  for art and cultivate independent ability and experience the beauty of life for further mould the beautiful personality to enrich life.
    另, "現代科學與技術之發展日新月異" 這句英文如何說較適當呢?
    Thank you for your help in advance.
    Have a nice day with best regards
    Hellen
  • Hi
    These are my changes.  I may have changed a little bit of what you are trying to portray so it makes more sense to me.
     

    Art originates from human culture.  Humanity and art are both essence of culture, which diversity often reflects in an author’s thoughts and emotion, and expresses in current social life.
     
    The intensity of purity in literature and art gradually deters people away.  Hence, the purpose of our class is to equip students with the ability to appreciate and appraise art, to cultivate oneself with the ability to independently valuate and understand the beauty of life, to further improve one’s inner beauty, and to eventually enrich one’s life.     

    另, "現代科學與技術之發展日新月異" 這句英文如何說較適當呢?
    Newer development of modern science and technology rises rapidly each day.
     

    elisaenglish 於 2009/05/15 14:47 回覆

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