請問要如何分辨何時要用不定詞何時用現在分詞來當形容詞?

 

不定詞及現在分詞當作形容詞來使用 are not always interchangeable.  It depends on the situations.  Usually infinitive is used to describe a future event, and present participle is used to describe a current or past event. 

 

 

(A)  現在分詞當作形容詞

Participial phrase as adjective:

 

現在分詞

(1)  The girl running slowly still won the competition.  (O)

= The girl who ran slowly still won the competition.

=> running slowly 形容 the girl.

 

The girl to run slowly still won the competition. (X)

= The girl who is to run slowly still won the competition (X)

=> 語意不對, because this is stating a past event.

 

(2)  The boy having been punished finally behaved. (O)

= The boy who had been punished finally behaved.

=> having been punished 形容 the boy.

 

The boy to be punished finally behaved.  (X)

= The boy who is to be punished finally behaved. (X)

=> 語意不對, because this is stating a past event.

 

The boy who is to be punished will learn to behave. (O)

= The boy to be punished will learn to behave.

=> to be punished 形容 the boy.

=> see the difference.  Infinitive using as an adjective is mostly used to describe the future event.

 

(3)  I am mad at all the people showing up at the party. 

= I am mad at all the people who show up at the party.

我氣憤所有出現在派對的人

=> showing up at the party 形容 the people.

 

I am mad at all the people to show up at the party. 

= I am mad at all the people who are to show up at the party.

=> I am mad at all the people who are (supposed) to show up at the party.

我氣憤所有出現在派對的人

=> to show up at the party 形容 the people.

 

(4)  I saw a crying baby. 

=> crying 形容 baby.

= I saw a baby who is crying.

=> This is describing a baby who is currently crying.

 

過去分詞

There is another type of participle that can be used as an adjective: Past Participle.

(5) Retaliation is the worst action (being) taken.

= Retaliation is the worst action that is being taken.
= Retaliation is the worst action that we are taking.

Retaliation is the worst action (being) taken.

= Retaliation is the worst action that is being taken.
= Retaliation is the worst action that we are taking.

 

(B)   不定詞當作形容詞來使用
Infinitive Phrase as adjective:

 

(1)  This must be the best thing to do.  (O)

=> This must be the best thing (that we need) to do

=>   to do 形容 thing

 

This must be the best thing doing (X)

=> This must be the best thing (that we need) doing.  (X)

 

(2)   Joe is the man to see about the job.

= Joe is the man who you should see about the job.

=>   to see about the job 形容 man

 

Joe is the man seeing about the job.

= Joe is the man who is seeing about the job.

= Joe is the man who sees about the job.

 

(3)  We have no basis to question your loyalty.

= We have no basis that we should question your loyalty.

=> to question your loyalty 形容 basis

 

We have no basis questioning your loyalty.

= We have no basis that we questioned your loyalty.

 

(4)  Retaliation is the worst action to take. (O)

= Retaliation is the worst action that we should take.

=> to take 形容 action

 

Retaliation is the worst action taking.  (X).

 

 

** 版權所有 - Elisa

elisaenglish 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()