Conjunction: 連接詞 

We use conjunction to link words, phrases and clauses within the same sentence.  It is a word that connects parts of a sentence.

 句子連接單字,片語,或子句的字稱為連接 

 

There are three types of conjunctions:

Coordinating conjunction (對等連接詞), subordinating conjunction (從屬連接詞 or 附屬連接詞) and correlative conjunction (相關連接詞).

 

1.   Coordinating Conjunction (對等連接詞)

A coordinating conjunction joins parts of a sentence (single words, phrases or independent clauses) that are grammatically equal.  Coordinating conjunctions should always join elements that are similar in importance and structure.

對等連接詞: 連接一句子同等地位的單字,片語或子句的連接詞

 

When using a conjunction to join two independent clauses, use a comma before the conjunction. 

 

They are 7 coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.  An easy way to memorize them is to think of FANBOYS.

F

A

N

B

O

Y

S

For

And

Nor

But

Or

Yet

So

 

For example: 

1.        For is used to state reason:

·         I decided to stay in Milwaukee overnight, for it is too late to catch a flight.

 

2.      And is used to join words together:

·         I decided to stay in Milwaukee overnight and visit my uncle the next day.

 

3.       Nor is used to indicate neither choice is probable:

·         (Neither) Mary nor her brother are coming to visit us.

·         (Neither) Mary nor John is paying us a visit.

·         He is neither handsome nor smart.

·         I have never seen him this update, nor have I seen him this impatient.

 

4.      But is used to show contrast, on the contrary or with the exception of:

·          I have purchased the ticket to London, but now I decide to go Paris instead.

·         John didn’t go to sleep until 3am, but he still seems quite alert.

·         All but John survive.

 

5.      Or is used to show choices:

·         (Either) Mary or John is coming to visit us.

·         (Either) Mary or her brothers are paying us a visit.

·         You can choose to behave or get grounded.

·         John has to study tonight, or he will not pass his exam tomorrow.

 

6.      Yet is used to indicate something on the contrary (it is okay to add “and” or “but” in front of “yet”, as in “and yet”, or “but yet”:

·         She is already 80 years old, yet she can hike like a teenager.

·         She is already 80 years old, and yet she can hike like a teenager.

 

7.      So is used to show result:

·         Tanya is not afraid of speaking up, so she is able to get the promotion.

 

NB:  It is improper to begin a sentence with either “and” or “but”.

 

2.   Subordinating Conjunction (從屬連接詞 or  附屬連接詞)

A subordinating conjunction connects two parts of the sentence that are not equal. It connects a subordinate dependent clause to a main independent clause, and is mostly used to emphasize the main clause.

附屬連接詞連接附屬子句與主要子句

 

The majority of conjunctions are "subordinating conjunctions".

 

Common subordinating conjunctions are:

after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, while, unless, who, which, that, though, as if, as though, so that, lest, why, in order that, because of

 

3.   Correlative Conjunction (相關連接詞)

A correlative conjunction always shows up in pairs, linking sentence elements of the same kind. 

相關連接詞是由兩個或多個字組成的連接詞。相關連接詞兩邊的文法關係必須對稱 - 所連接的部份是同等關係。

 

Common correlative conjunctions are:

both ... and, either ... or, neither ... nor, whether ... or, not only ... but also, as ... as, so ... as, so … that, such … that

 

 

For example:

 

She is as beautiful as ever.

“She is beautiful” “she has ever been beautiful” 的比較

=> She is as beautiful as she has ever been (beautiful)

=> She is as beautiful as (she has) ever (been)

省略 “she has been beautiful” 由於重複

 

She is as beautiful as before.

“She is beautiful” “she was beautiful before” 的比較

=> She is as beautiful as she was (beautiful) before.

=> She is as beautiful as (she was) before.

省略 “she was beautiful” 由於重複

 

 I don't think it's as hot and humid today as it was yesterday

“it’s hot and humid today” “it was (hot and humid) yesterday” 的比較

=> I don’t think that it is as hot and humid today as it was (hot and humid) yesterday.

省略 “hot and humid” 由於重複

 

 The child sang as sweetly as a nightingale (sang). 那孩子歌唱得跟夜鶯一樣甜美

“The child sang sweetly” “a nightingale sang sweetly” 的比較

=> The child sang as sweetly as a nightingale

省略 “sang sweetly” 由於重複

 

He is as nice as his brother

 “He is nice” “His brother is nice” 的比較

=> He is as nice as his brother is (nice).

=> He is as nice as his brother (is).

省略 “is nice” 由於重複

 

 He is as good as he is bad.

“He is good” “he is bad” 的比較

 

This chair is as comfortable as that one.

“This chair is comfortable” “that chair is comfortable” 的比較

=> This chair is as comfortable as that chair is (comfortable).

=> This chair is as comfortable as that chair (is).

省略 “is comfortable” 由於重複

 

 

He works as hard as (he) ever (worked).
= He works as hard as ever.

 

We're working as hard as (we've) ever (worked) on any project.
= We're working as hard as ever on any project.

 

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