Adverb Clause:

副詞子句副詞作用的子句 (包含主, 述詞, 動詞) 修飾另一個子句, 主要作為附屬或連接,  像副詞片語般,但像是介詞片語

 

副詞子句顯示出與地點 (place), 時間 (time), 因果 (cause and effect), 對比 (contrast) 和情況 (condition) 的關, 并且回答 where, when, why, with what goal/result, to what degree under what circumstances 問題                       

 

An adverb clause is not a complete sentence. It must be connected to an independent clause.

 

The subordinators in adverb clauses are called subordinating conjunctions 附屬連.  They cannot be omitted. They cannot be subjects. 附屬連 such as “when”, “where”, “in order that”, “so that”, “while”, etc. 引導出副詞子句

Examples:

(a) He came to see me yesterday. (normal adverb)
(b) He came to see me in April this year. (adverbial phrase)

(c) He came to see me before he went to Japan . (adverb clause = before he went to Japan .  Independent clause = He came to see me)

 

 

1. Place (Where?)

附屬連:  Where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere.

 

Where there is a will, there is a way.

I will follow you wherever you go.

Anywhere you go, I will follow you.

I see snow everywhere I look.

 

2.  Time (When?)

附屬連:  After, before, when, while, as, the moment, whenever, since, until/till, as soon as, once, as long as, so long as, every time (that), by the time (that), up to the time (that),

 

John decided to move in with his kids after he had the car accident.

Before John moved in with his kids, he had a car accident.

When John had the car accident, I was talking to Mary.

While I was having my dinner, John called me.

John called me as I was having my dinner.

By the time (that) John called me, I had already finished my dinner.

John is up to no good whenever he calls me.

The country has undergone economic turmoil since Manny became the president. 

I will not set my feet at Tom’s house until he changes his attitude towards abortion.

As soon as Tom Cruise arrives at the airport, the paparazzi surround him. 

Once you learned how to bike, you will never forget.

I will never forget you as long as I live.

So long as I am still alive, I will keep fighting for justice.

I want to kiss him every time (that) I see him.

I will call him every day up to the time that he agrees to give me a refund.

 

3.  Cause/Reason, Effect/Result, Purpose (Why? With what goal/result?)

附屬連: 

 

(a) Cause/Reason

Because, since, as, inasmuch as, in that, given that, for, due to the fact that, because of the fact that, owing to the fact that, on account of the fact that, on the grounds that, seeing that, in view of the fact that, now that

 

I was unable to go to Boston yesterday because the airport was closed down as of snow.

I was unable to go to Boston yesterday since the airport was closed down as of snow.

I was unable to go to Boston yesterday as the airport was closed down as of snow.

I was unable to go to Boston yesterday inasmuch as the airport was closed down as of snow.

In that the airport was closed down as of snow, I was unable to go to Boston yesterday

He is in jail, given that he cannot prove his innocence.

He is in jail, for he cannot prove his innocence.

He is in jail due to the fact (/ because of the fact / on account of the fact / owing to the fact) that he cannot prove his innocence.

He is in jail on the grounds that he cannot prove his innocence.

Seeing that she has grown up, I can finally take a breather as a parent.

In view of the fact that she has grown up, I can finally take a breather as a parent.

Now that he is a permanent resident, his chance of getting employed is greater.

 
 

(b) Effect/Result/Purpose

So (that), in order that, such that, in case, lest, for fear that

 

I get up early so (that) I can arrive at work on time.

I get up early in order that I can arrive at work on time.

He moved to New York such that he could get better employment opportunities. 

I decided to take a different route in case I ran into him.

I decided to take a different route lest (/ for fear that) I ran into him.

 

4.  Opposition / Contrast / Concessive (Why is this expected?)

附屬連:  Although, even though, though, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that, where, whereas, while

 

John earns only enough to stay alive although (/though) he graduated from a prestige college.

Even though I am an English teacher, my English ability is still below average.

In spite of the fact (/Despite the fact) that I am an English teacher, my English ability is still below average.

While he graduated from a prestige college, he earns only enough to stay alive.

He speaks English whereas his wife speaks Spanish.

 

5.  Condition (Under what circumstances?)

附屬連:  If, in case, in the even (that), whether or not, as long as, so long as, insofar as, to the extent that, unless, only if, even if, providing (that), provided (that)

 

If it rains, I will stay at home.

I will stay at home in case it rains.  

I will stay at home in the event (that) it rains.

Whether or not it rains, I will stay at home.

He doesn’t have to go the jail as long as (/ so long as) he can prove his innocence.

I will try to finish the work insofar as I have time.

I will try to finish the work to the extent that I have time.

Mary will not stop unless she gets what she wants.

Stay here only if you have no other place to go.

Even if the sovereignty of Taiwan is determined, there will still be arguments around it.

The election would not be fair providing that terrorists were involved in the voting. 

Provided (that) the sovereignty of Taiwan is determined, there will still be arguments around it.

 

 

6.  Manner

附屬連:  As if, as though, like, as, the way

 

Tom treats Mary as if (/ as though /like /as) she were a goddess.

She teaches her students the way she was taught.

 

 

7.  Comparison

附屬連:  than, as

 

Tom is smarter than Jerry is.

She is as tall as Mary is.

 
 

Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying Phrases

=> You can reduce adverb clause to adverbial phrase only if subject is the same as in the main clause.

 

 

i. Omit the subject and the be form of the verb of the dependant clause:

 

(a) Adverb clause:

While he was in China, he ran into an old friend. 

 

Adverbial phrase:

While in China, he ran into an old friend.

 

(b) Adverb clause:

After he was scolded for hitting, he was sent to the Principal’s office for detention. 

Adverbial phrase:

After scolded for hitting, he was sent to the Principal’s house for detention.

 

ii. If there is no be form of a verb, omit the subject and change the verb to -Ving:

 

Adverb clause:

While Mary finished shopping, she went to Jerry’s house. 

 

Adverbial phrase:

While finishing shopping, Mary went to Jerry’s house.

Finishing shopping, Mary went to Jerry’s house.

 

iii. If the subject in the main clause is different from that in the dependent clause, you cannot reduce the adverb clause to an adverbial phrase.

 

Adverb clause:

While I was having dinner, John called.

 

Adverbial phrase:

While having dinner, John called.  (X) => This is incorrect.

 

iv.  

Adverb clause:

I get up early so that I arrive at work on time.

I get up early in order that I arrive at work on time.

 

Adverbial phrase:

I get up early so as to arrive at work on time.

I get up early in order to arrive at work on time.

 

Infinitive phrase:

I get up early to arrive at work on time.

 

 

 

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