A compound adjective is a modifier of a noun. Compound adjectives do not always have hyphens. They are hyphenated to avoid confusion.
Small appliance industry = A small industry producing appliances
Small-appliance industry = An industry producing small appliances
However, they are not hyphenated if these modifying words come after the noun.
The gloves are water proof.
A high-valued product.
The product is high valued.
A long-term solution.
The solution is long term.
A two-year-old toddler.
A toddler who is two year old cannot control his/her emotion.
When combining an adverb (usually a word ending in "ly") and an adjective, words are not hyphenated because the adverb modifies the adjective rather than the subsequent noun.
An extremely long snake.
A highly publicized actress.
Types of hyphenated compound adjectives
(1) Adjective (including comparatives and superlatives) + Noun
A red-light district. A full-time employee. A high-level requirement.
A large-scale development. A shorter-term solution
(2) Numeric+ Noun (Singular)
A seven-year itch. A ten-storey building. A five-minute walk
(3) Noun + Noun (Adjectival phrases are often hyphenated to avoid confusion with nouns.)
A parent-teacher conference. Some food-web dependencies.
A crude-oil processing. An ice-cream shop
(1) Adjective + Adjective
A dark-green dress. A bitter-sweet memory.
(2) Noun + Adjective
A water-proof jacket. A nation-wide campaign. A duty-free shop.
A world-famous player.
(1) Adjective (including comparatives and superlatives) + Participle
An ugly-looking goose = A goose which looks ugly.
A snow-covered mountain => A mountain which is covered with snow.
An eye-catching girl => A girl who catches people’s eyes.
A shorter-tempered person. A narrow-minded person
(2) Adverb + Participle
A never-ending story => A story which never ends.
A well-paid salary. A well-respected teacher
(3) Noun + Participle
An adventure-packed quest => A quest which is packed with adventures.
A home-made cookie. A fun-loving person.
(4) Numeric + Past Participle
A one-eyed bear. A two-sided story
(5) Past Participle + Adverb
A laid-off worker => A work who is laid off.
A scaled-down operation.
(6) Past Participle + Preposition
An agreed-upon solution.
(1) Preposition + Adjective
Over-ripe bananas are good for baking.
(2) Preposition + Noun
(1) Verb + Adjective
A feel-good factor
(2) Verb + Adverb
A drive-by shooting. A shut-down factory.
(3) Verb + Preposition
A bang-up job
(4) Verb + Verb
A make-believe world
A give-and-take situation
(5) Verb + Noun
An open-top convertible.
F. Infinitive 不定詞
A face-to-face meeting
A hard-to-please client
** 版權所有 - Elisa